Joffre does America

10 May 1917: Tens of thousands of New Yorkers, including Leonard Wood, turned out to see Marshal Joffre place a wreath on Ulysses S. Grant's sarcophagus

10 May 1917: Tens of thousands of New Yorkers, including Leonard Wood, turned out to see Marshal Joffre place a wreath on Ulysses S. Grant’s sarcophagus. Here he is outside the tomb meeting the public. Grant’s Tomb was one of the nation’s most-visited tourist sites in the early decades of the 20th century.

I mentioned the Joffre-Viviani Mission in a post the other day. Today on my way to visit a friend for lunch I began John S.D. Eisenhower’s Yanks: The Epic Story of the American Army in World War 1. One of my mantras is that time on the subway shall not go wasted. Yanks is a primer on the American experience during the Great War. It is funny how one mentions something–even something as obscure such as the French military mission of spring 1917–and then a few days later it appears again.

As if on cue Eisenhower begins his narrative with Marshal Joffre and Prime Minister Viviani’s trip. The trip was really Joffre’s, as he was the one most Americans were eager to see. The marshal was one of those great characters from history who blended charisma, intelligence, chutzpah, and just the right mix of shamelessness  and hucksterism into an oversized package one could only love. Joffre had a little bit of Lionel Hutz in him.

7 May 1917: Three days earlier Joffre had been in Illinois paying his respects to the 16th president

7 May 1917: Three days before the ceremony at Grant’s Tomb, Joffre had been in Illinois paying his respects to Lincoln.

The Frenchman in America is a theme I discuss in my tours at the the Roosevelt Birthplace. It comes up when I discuss famous people who came to the Birthplace. One individual was Marshal Ferdinand Foch, who came to East 20th Street in 1921 when the site was being being rebuilt. Going back there was Lafayette in the 1820s, Tocqueville in the 1830s, Joffre during the Great War, and Foch three after it ended. These are things they themselves would have grasped at the time. Indeed Foch’s 1921 trip was modeled consciously on Lafayette’s.

Joffre’s American excursion was more than casual however. He had business to conduct in addition to the goodwill aspects of his visit. For one thing the British were also in town too and competing for Wilson’s ear. This is a simplification, but Joffre won the public relations campaign over the Brits. One of the people he met first in the United States was the young Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Like Theodore, Franklin had long been an advocate of preparedness. About a week into the trip there was that ticker tape parade up lower Manhattan. Joffre also visited Grant’s Tomb and Lincoln’s resting place in Springfield, Illinois.

(images/Grant’s Tomb. Library of Congress; Lincoln resting place, NYPL)

 

We interrupt this weekend . . .

. . . to note that Coleman Hawkins’s rendition of “Body and Soul” turned seventy-five this week.

The Hawk’s version of the song was not the first, but it was the one that literally became the standard. Ten years ago the National Recording Preservation Board of the Library of Congress added “Body and Soul” to the National Recording Registry. Other entrants that year included Hoagy Carmichael’s “Stardust,” Woodrow Wilson’s Armistice Day 1918 broadcast, and Alexander Scourby’s reading of the King James Bible.

No one–not even the Duke himself–was cooler than Bean. Enjoy.

 

The protean Roosevelt

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Staying with the Roosevelt/Joe Wheeler meme just a little longer, I though I would share this newspaper collage that appeared the day after Theodore’s 1905 inaugural. It captures various moments in the life and times of the 26th president. The image in the lower left hand corner depicts the two men in Chattanooga, presumably on the campaign trail in support of Roosevelt’s presidential candidacy. It is interesting on a number of levels. First of all everyone at the time would have understood the symbolism of the former Confederate general traversing the city where, just 41 years earlier, Grant’s forces had taken Missionary Ridge. Also Wheeler was Democrat, as were most white Southerners from the 1860s through the realignment of the 1960s. For him to campaign for and with the sitting Republican president was unusual. Wheeler likely thought of this as a reconciliationist gesture. Chickamauga/Chattanooga was the first of the Civil War national military parks, having been established by Congress in 1895.

(image/NYPL)

From Chickamauga to Governors Island

Back in July I posted about the construction of the second Y.M.C.A. on Governors Island in 1927. That building still stands, though it is boarded up and would need considerable work to be functional. With so many other wothwhile projects underway in the city-managed portion of the island, I don’t know when or if that would ever happen. As I mentioned in that post, the original Y.M.C.A. had its soft opening in July 1900. The ceremony was understated because those who can get out of Gotham during the dog days of summer do so. In other words, all the big shots were out of town. Well today, October 10, marks the anniversary of the grand opening of that first Governors Island Y.M.C.A.

The original Y–the first ever on a U.S. Army base–was funded by William E. Dodge Jr. No one remembers who he was today, but Dodge was a member of one of the 19th century’s great merchant families. He also co-founded the Allotment Commission with Theodore Roosevelt Sr. during the American CIvil War. It says something about how young Roosevelt was when he died in 1878 that his friends and contemporaries were still going strong at the turn of the 20th century. Dodge said a few words on that October day. So did his son, the President of the Young Men’s Christian Association Cleveland H. Dodge.

The Rough Riders: General Joseph Wheeler (front), Leonard Wood (second from right), and Theodore Roosevelt Roosevelt (far right). Three years after this photo was taken the former Confederate general would help dedicate the Governors Island Y.M.C.A.

The Rough Riders: General Joseph Wheeler (front), Leonard Wood (second from right), and Theodore Roosevelt Roosevelt (far right). Three years after this photo was taken the former Confederate general would help dedicate the Governors Island Y.M.C.A.

One of the more interesting characters on hand was Joseph Wheeler. Yes, that Joe Wheeler. Wheeler had retired from the regular Army exactly one month earlier, on 10 September. In between his 1859 graduation from West Point he managed to fight as an officer in the Confederate infantry at Shiloh, command the cavalry of the Army of Mississippi, serve eight terms in Congress after the Civil War, and accept William McKinley’s call to service in the Spanish-American War. He fought in the Philippines as well. It was during the Spanish-American War that he came to know Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt had risen like a meteor after San Juan Hill and by 1900 he was McKinley’s running mate. The Y.M.C.A.’s ceremony fell in the middle of the 1900 presidential election. Roosevelt was in Indiana castigating Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan the day of the Y dedication.

It is unfortunate that the original Y.M.C.A. is no longer extant. I am not even certain where it stood–the closest I have gotten to a description is that it stood on the southwest part of the island. That could be anywhere. I have not been able to find any photographs either–and I have looked, believe me. Still, it was just as well that that first Y.M.C.A.–dedicated 114 years ago today–did not last. The Army loved it so much that they outgrew it so quickly. That is why they built the second, bigger and better one in the late 1920s. All told the Y.M.C.A. served its function on Governors Island for over sixty years.

(image/NYPL)

Selling Governors Island

Times were difficult for the Army in the decades between the First and Second World Wars. This was especially true on Governors Island. The American people wanted a quick draw down after Versailles. One of the most distinguished officers in the history of the U.S. Army served on Governors Island during these lean years. Unfortunately, General Fox Conner has largely been forgotten.

BookReaderImages.phpConner was born in Mississippi in the decade after the Civil War and graduated from West Point in 1894. He received an auspicious assignment in 1911; Conner was posted to the French Army’s 22nd Field Artillery. Such assignments had a long history; prior to the American Civil War George McClellan and Richard Delafield were just two American military observers in the Crimea. When American began its involvement in the Great War, René Viviani and Joseph Joffre came to the United States in April-May 1917 to coordinate military and logistical matters with American officials. Conner received orders to coordinate the so-called Viviani-Joffre Mission. His diplomacy and light touch helped make the mission a success all the way around.

General Pershing took Conner to Europe that next month. In France. Conner was the youngest officer on Pershing’s staff and quickly became chief of operations for the AEF. Conner recognized the talents of a young George Marshall and took him under his wing. As the Meuse-Argonne Offensive was grinding along and American victory seemed at hand, Conner advised Pershing against advocating for an armistice. Conner believed the Germans had to be defeated totally or another war would be inevitable. Pershing concurred but the civilian leadership had other ideas. The Armistice came that November, and we will never know how things might have turned out otherwise.

New Yorkers turned out to see Marshal Joseph Joffre when he, René Viviani, and other French officials visited the United States in spring 1917

New Yorkers turned out to see Joffre when he, René Viviani, and other French officials visited the United States in spring 1917

Conner had a number of assignments during the draw down in the 1920s. Budgets were tight and he saw first hand how the cutbacks in funding and personnel were harming the Army. That led to one of the more unusual incidents in the history of Governors Island. In April 1926 Deputy Chief of Staff Conner testified in front of the Senate Military Committee that the War Department should sell the island here in New York harbor as well as the Presidio in San Francisco. Conner estimated the two sites could generate 25 and 26 million dollars respectively. Conner reasoned that with these funds the Army could spend the money in much needed other areas. People were listening. Congressman Fiorello LaGuardia pounced on Conner’s testimony to advocate for an airport on Governors Island.

It may sound sacrilege but Conner had a point. Servicemen on the island were living in dilapidated shacks and old warehouses left over from the buildup during the Great War. A German officer was quoted in the New York Times as saying the Germany provided better quarters to POWs during the war than what existed for soldiers on Governors Island. The savior turned out to be Calvin Coolidge. In January 1928 the president signed legislation authorizing the construction of a new regimental barracks on Governors Island. This would be Liggett Hall. There was much debate over where the barracks for the 16th Regiment would go. Wisely they built it adjacent to the new YMCA.

Conner’s involvement is a little fuzzy, but he may have had something to do with Liggett Hall’s construction; ironically the man who had advocated Governors Island’s sale was stationed here in 1927 as commander of the First Infantry Division. It is interesting that just eight months later Coolidge authorized the spacious new barracks.

This photograph of Brigadier General B.H. Wells, Major General Fox Conner (center) and Major General Dennis E. Nolan (right) was taken on March 8, 1926. Connor was Deputy Chief of Staff at the time. Note that the three are wearing business suits. That decade after the war military men wore civilian attire, not uniforms, to work due to isolationist sentiment.

This photograph of Brigadier General B.H. Wells, Major General Fox Conner (center) and Major General Dennis E. Nolan (right) was taken on March 8, 1926. Conner was Deputy Chief of Staff at the time. Note that the three are wearing business suits. In the decades after the Great War military men wore civilian attire, not uniforms, to work due to isolationist sentiment.

Conner is forgotten today because he was wedged in between generations. Military glory eluded him during the First World War because he was so important to Pershing as a staff officer. Subsequently, Conner was hugely influential in the intellectual development of a generation of young military officers who played prominent roles in the next World War. Conner alumni included the aforementioned Marshall, George Patton, and Dwight Eisenhower. Conner retired from active service in 1938 and was too old when Pearl Harbor came.

Still, he did prove helpful. Eisenhower, for one, wrote frequently for advice. How to keep a fragile allied coalition together during wartime was something Ike wanted to know. This was a sensitive topic  and one that Conner knew a little about, having handled such irascible characters as Joseph Joffre and Douglas Haig so well thirty years earlier. The Second World War was the conflict Conner and Pershing warned about in October 1918. At least he lived to see its conclusion. Fox Conner died in October 1951.

(image/Wells, Conner, and Nolan photograph courtesy of the Library of Congress)

Sunday morning coffee

When I first met the Hayfoot way back when I told her that the best thing about baseball is that, though the so much of the game is routine, you never know when you will experience something you never forget. Yesterday’s eighteen inning Giants-Nationals marathon was such an experience. I am still trying to recover. Why did you do it, Matt? Why did you take Zimmerman out with two outs in the top of the 9th? October baseball is cruel in the severity of its justice. IMG_1504 I finally had a chance to check out the New York Public Library’s Over Here: WWI and the Fight for the American Mind. It is a small exhibit and so I would not recommend coming all the way into the city just to see it. Still, it covers a lot of ground and would make an ideal addition to a midtown excursion complemented with something else. IMG_1489 Roosevelt figures prominently in the exhibit. It begins with an analysis of the American peace vs preparedness debate. This is why it is important for Americans to be focused on the Great War centennial right now and not just beginning in April 2017 with the anniversary of the United States military involvement. As is fitting for a library exhibit, the show is heavy on books. These two were written by Roosevelt and Jane Addams. As you might imagine, the former president and the social worker fell on opposite sides of the debate. IMG_1491 The photographs here are from the Plattsburgh camps. All four of Roosevelt’s sons spent time in this civilian training center at various times. IMG_1499 Again, more books. As the subtitle indicates the show is about the arguments within American society. When the slaughter began in 1914 Americans tuned in, took sides, and debated. The exhibit contains fiction and non-fiction taking pro-German, pro-Allied, or neutral stances. Titles here include Fair Play for Germany and Defenseless America. I could not help but wonder if Fair Play for Cuba, the group with which Lee Harvey Oswald was affiliated, took its name from the former. IMG_1492The Creel Committee was nothing if not effective. The poster was one of the biggest propaganda vehicles of the Great War. It is a testament to the resources of the New York Public library that its collections contain such gems as these. IMG_1495 IMG_1496 These were my two favorite things in the show. I know from my involvement with the WW1 Centennial Commission that the African American experience will be a focus of the Great War anniversary. Over Here is on exhibit through 15 February 2015. Should you be in New York sometime this fall or winter, make it part of your schedule if you can. I hope the library does a few more of these over the next five years.

Another summer winds down

Governors Island's Nolan Park

Governors Island’s Nolan Park

It must be fall because I am listening to post-season baseball on the radio.

A few minutes ago I hit send and emailed in the last of my oral history reports for the season at Governors Island. Another volunteer and I spent the last few Sundays of September interviewing individuals who served on the base. These former Army and Coast Guard uniformed service persons have some incredible stories to tell. It is a privilege to speak to them and record their memories for posterity. With the GI season over, that leaves just the Roosevelt Birthplace until next Memorial Day Weekend. I am turning my attention next to an article about Theodore Roosevelt, Leonard Wood, and the Preparedness Movement prior to America’s involvement in the Great War. My goal is to get it done before the Hackensack Toy Soldier show in early November. As this project moves along I will share some things. I have wanted to tell this story for awhile now. For one thing it ties in neatly with Governors Island and the Roosevelt Birthplace.

I was wondering before I turned up at the TRB this past Saturday what the public response would be to the Ken Burns/Geoffrey Ward documentary. Many visitors had indeed seen it and the response was positive. Not surprisingly, attendance was a little higher that day as well. There is nothing like sharing history with the public, which I was not doing so much in the last week’s at Governors Island. There is nothing like going where history was made.